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Introductory remarks

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Standard sign language dictionary Introductory remarks

Entries (Words)

Entry Selection Basis

The entries included in this dictionary of Korean sign language are based on Korean vocabulary. Special attention was given to

  • Words listed and used in numerous sign language books and dictionaries
  • Words used in sign language whose meanings and/or etymological origins can be easily associated or inferred
  • Words used in sign language that are relatively simple and easy to express
  • Sign language for banhyeongeo that contradict the words being spoken
  • Words used in sign language in 113 relatively well-known countries around the world (*including words used in the sign languages of other countries that are also commonly used in Korea)
  • Names of regions or areas in South Korea,including Seoul Special City, the five metropolitan cities, the provinces and provincial capitals, the ancient capital cities (i.e., Kaesong, Gyeongju, Gongju, Buyeo, and Euijeongbu), and the major islands (e.g., Ganghwa-do, Geoje-do, Dok-do, and Ulleung-do); and in North Korea, including the five provinces (i.e., Pyongannam-do, Pyonganbuk-do, Hamkyongnam-do, Hamkyongbuk-do, and Hwanghae-do) and the major cities (e.g., Sineuiju, Wonsan, and Pyongyang);as well as in the well-known cities of other countries
  • Names of towns, cities, and provinces as used by the municipal or provincial associations of deaf persons and their local chapters
  • Names of government departments and agencies to which minister-level officials are appointed
  • Commonly used words related to the military and police
  • Commonly used religious words chosen by the representative organizations of each religion
  • Commonly used words related to sports and athleticism
  • Modern words that have entered common use (*words once used in the past, such aschaekbo,meaning “bookbag,” have been excluded)
  • Words that are derogatory toward disabilities and people with disabilities
  • The handful of prepositions and suffixes that are used in sign language
  • Acronyms and abbreviations that are more commonly used than the original words or names
  • Less commonly used synonyms of common words
  • Words used to denote objects that went by different names in the past (e.g., “School Life Records” instead of “Academic Register Records”)
  • Finger alphabets and numbers, listed in a separate appendix, are also included as entries (*Finger numbers, which are listed in the appendix as well as included as entries, include the numbers between zero (0) and nineteen (19), between twenty (20) and one hundred (100), and one thousand (1,000), tenthousand (10,000), one hundredthousand (100,000), one million (1,000,000), tenmillion (10,000,000), one hundredmillion (100,000,000), and one trillion (1,000,000,000,000).
Manner of Presentation
  • The entries are made in the Korean script known as hangul. Even words that are customarily writtenusing the Roman alphabets or numerals are written in hangul.
  • Words written in hangulthat have multiple meanings are distinguished using superscripts according to the principles outlined under “3. Order of Presentation.”
Order of Presentation
  • The entries are ordered and listed according to the order of hangul(“ga,” “na,” “da,” etc.). The exact order of consonants and vowels in hangulis as follows
    ① Initial phonemes (consonants)
    ㄲㄴㄷㄸㄹㅁㅂㅃㅅㅆㅇㅈㅉㅊㅌㅍㅎ
    ② Syllable nuclei (vowels)
    ㅏㅐㅑㅒㅓㅔㅕㅖㅗㅘㅙㅚㅛㅜㅝㅞㅟㅠㅡㅢㅣ
    ③ Final consonants
    ㄱㄲㄴㅆㅋㄷㄹㄺㄻㄼㅀㅁㅂㅄㅅㅆㅇㅈㅉㅊㅌㅍㅎ
  • Entries containing the same consonants and vowels in the same order are listed in the order of: Korean letters, Chinese characters, and then foreign words. Chinese words are listed in descending order by the number of strokes. Words that are written and sound the same but denote different things are distinguished and ordered using superscripts.
Information on the Foreign Origins of Entries

For Korean words that have their origins in Chinese characters or other foreign languages, the original Chinese or foreign words are indicated next to the entries. If a given entry is a unique word that combines Korean but with foreign elements, these foreign elements are indicated with hyphens (“-”).

Notation
  • Only Chinese characters, Japanese letters (hiragana, katakana, and kanji), and letters of the Roman alphabets are used to indicate the foreign origins of given entries. Entries with etymological or linguistic roots in languages other than these written languages are indicated by transcribing the original words into the Roman alphabet.
  • All letters of the Roman alphabets are written in lowercase letters, except in the cases of proper nouns or German nouns that require the use of capital letters.
  • Words that are acronyms made up of letters of the Roman alphabets are written in their acronymic forms without the use of periods between the letters.
Spacing of Original Words
  • No spaces are inserted between Chinese characters. Similarly, no spaces are inserted between the Chinese/Korean elements and foreign elements of words.
  • Spaces in the original foreign words are retained.
Source Language Notation
  • The original language from which an entry derives is indicated using the abbreviation for that language.
  • Entries originating in the English language are not indicated with the abbreviation for that language.
Names of Korean Consonants and Vowels
For entries of a consonant or vowel of hangul, the full name of the consonant or vowel is written out in Korean
E.g., Indication of the entry “ㄱ”: “기역” (giyeok)
Grammatical Notation
  • The grammar indicated in the dictionary is the grammar of the Korean language and not of Korean sign language. Nevertheless, the grammar is indicated to facilitate understanding of the Korean language via sign language.
  • Any grammar contained in the given entries is indicated according to the “Principles of Grammar” outlined in “Symbols and Abbreviations Used in Sign Language Dictionaries.”
Definitions
  • The definitions of entries notated in hangulare not the definitions of the words per se, but the descriptions of the Korean sign language, as shown in the attendant image and the description thereof. The definitions of entries, however, may overlap in entirety or part with the definitions of the words as used in the Korean language.
  • Multiple examples under an entry are distinguished by the use of periods (“.”).
Examples
  • Examples are presented after the definitions. All examples are translated and modified according to the syntax of the Korean language. Any grammar contained in the given entries is indicated according to the “Principles of Grammar” outlined in “Symbols and Abbreviations Used in Sign Language Dictionaries.”
Etymological Information
  • The etymology, structural analysis, and etymological meaning of each given entry are presented in square brackets (“〔〕”).
  • Compound words expressed using integrated sign language gestures are written with plus signs (“+”) to indicate how the gestures are combined. (E.g., “Hometown”: 〔to give birth + place〕.)
  • Compound words that use two or more separate sign language gestures together are written with slashes (“/”) to indicate how the gestures are combined. (E.g., “Payment”: 〔money/to give〕.)
Donghyeongeo and Banhyeongeo
  • Donghyeongeorefers to the sign language that matches the expression it describes. Donghyeongeoincludes synonyms and non-synonyms alike. All entries in donghyeongeoare indicated with the equal sign (“=”). Banhyeongeo, on the other hand, refers to the sign language that contradicts the expression it describes. Banhyeongeoincludes antonyms and non-antonyms alike. Entries that have similar antonyms are also given their banhyeongeoexpressions, which are indicated with the two-direction sign (“↔”).
Idioms
  • Only the idioms that can be written out as used in sign language are included.
  • The first word of the idiom is listed as the entry. The entire idiom is presented only once under the given entry.
  • Idioms are defined and explained.
    E.g., [study + power] is the idiomatic phrase in sign language to denote a brilliant mind.
Pictures and Explanations of Sign Language Gestures and Finger Alphabets and Numbers
  • Entries are expressed as pictures, accompanied by Korean captions, in order to facilitate the understanding and expression of the sign language gestures, finger alphabets, finger numbers, and sign language explanations involved.
  • Where a given entry can be expressed using two or more sign language gestures, the pictures and explanations of all such gestures are given, indicated using the numbers (1), (2), etc.
  • Sign language gestures and finger alphabets and numbers are indicated not by the names of the fingers to be used, but by the corresponding identification numbers of the fingers. See “Numbers of Fingers Used in Explanations of Sign Language Gestures and Finger Alphabets and Numbers.”
Symbols and Abbreviations
Grammar
N
noun
Dep. pn.
dependent pronoun
Pers. pn.
personal pronoun
Dem. pn.
demonstrative pronoun
Rh.
rhetoric
Int. v.
intransitive verb
Trans. v.
transitive verb
Aux. v.
auxiliary verb
Adj.
adjective
Aux. adj.
auxiliary adjective
Det.
determiner
Adv.
adverb
Aux.
auxiliary adjective
Prep.
preposition
Suffixes
Suffixes
Hatrans.
--hajatransitive
Haint.
--hajaintransitive
Hatrans./int.
--hajatransitiveintransitive
Hatrans. adj.
--hajatransitiveadjective
Haint. adj.
--hajaintransitiveadjective
Haaje.
--hajaadjective
Haintransitive adjective
--hajatransitiveintransitiveadjective
Hiadv.
--hiadverb
Seuadj.
--seureobdaadjective
Idiom
Idiomatic phrase
Org.
original/full-length word
Abb.
abbreviated word
Pref.
prefix
Suf.
suffix
Language Abbreviations
Lat.
- Latin
Fr.
- French
It.
- Italian
Heb.
- Hebrew
Jp.
- Japanese
Symbols
( )
Indicates the original word/root of the given entry.
Indicates the beginning of an example.
 
[ ]
Indicates the full name of a Korean consonant or vowel given as an entry.
=
In front of donghyeongeo
-
hyphen as used in the original word.
In front of banhyeongeo
-
indicates the prefix or the suffix of the given word.
〔 〕
indicates the etymological origin of the given word.
+
indicates the combination of two or more sign language gestures.
-
indicates the repetition of the given entry.
/
indicates where two or more separate sign language gestures are combined.
to go in front of an original/full-length word.
①②
--- where there are multiple definitions.
Numbers of Fingers Used in Explanations of Sign Language Gestures and Finger Alphabets and Numbers

Sign language gestures and finger alphabets and numbers are indicated not by the names of the fingers to be used, but the corresponding identification numbers of the fingers. The finger identification numbers are as follows

Numbers

각 손가락 번호, 설명은 아래에 있습니다.

  • Thumb: 5
  • Index finger: 1
  • Middle finger: 2
  • Ring finger: 3
  • Little finger: 4

Seoul Metropolitan Government has launched and continues to expand its “Database for the Korean Sign Language Dictionary” as part of its efforts to assist and support people with linguistic disabilities.

  • Sources : Ministry of Culture, Sports, and Tourism, National Institute of the Korean Language, and Korea Association of the Deaf
  • Published : December 31, 2005
  • Number of entries : 7,000
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